Digital experiences in creating digital services: case work for the rights of the child

Abstract

The digitalization process in the public sector has brought different benefits to states and their citizens, but it has also brought several challenges. In particular, digitalization processes require close collaboration with legal practitioners, managers and IT professionals, and failure to engage all participants means to come up with digital systems that do not comply with requirements, especially those related to laws. Currently, compliance is done in an after-the-fact fashion: a digital system is implemented, and legislators audit whether it abides legal constraints. The problem with this approach is the cost: in case of non-compliance, systems need to be re-implemented, and this will be most likely the case since laws are always changing. In this work we report experiences in compliant-by-design case work (CbDCW). In CbDCW, legal considerations are involved before the system is implemented, making compliance checking a task that can be automated. Moreover, the impact of a law change in implementation can be identified without needing to program a new solution. This paper reports our experiences in the application of CbDCW in the Danish public sector, as well as to propose a research agenda derived from these experiences. Overall we identified that there are key socio-technical differences between legal practitioners and process or IT developers, and that ensuring compliance requires these types of stakeholders to have a common understanding, which can be supported by hybrid-modeling techniques proper from business process management.

Author Biography

Hugo-Andrés López, Copenhagen University, 41 Sigurdsgade, Copenhagen 2200, Denmark; DCR Solutions A/S, 76 Njalsgade, Copenhagen 2300, Denmark

assistant professor in computer science at the software, data, people and society section, department of computer science

References

  1. Motahari-Nezhad HR, Swenson KD. Adaptive case management: overview and research challenges. In: CBI ’13: Proceedings of the 2013 IEEE 15th conference on business informatics. Washington: IEEE Computer Society; 2013. p. 264–269.
  2. The European Commission: digital economy and society index (DESI). 2019 country report. Denmark [Internet; cited 2020 April 23 ]. Available from: https://ec.europa.eu/newsroom/dae/document.cfm?doc_id=59896.
  3. Danish Agency for Digitzation: a stronger and more secure digital Denmark [Internet; cited 2020 April 23]. Available from: https://en.digst.dk/media/14143/ds_singlepage_uk_web.pdf.
  4. The Danish Ministry of Social Affairs and the Interior: Consolidation act on social services [Internet; cited 2020 April 23]. Available from: http://english.sm.dk/media/14900/consolidation-act-on-social-services.pdf.
  5. Eiriksson BA, Nordland I. Analyse: regelkompleksitet pa det socialretlige omraade [Internet; cited 2020 April 23]. Justitia. Available from: http://justitia-int.org/wp-content/uploads/2020/03/AnalyseRegelkompleksitet_Endelig.pdf.
  6. National Social Appeals Board (Ankestyrelsen): annual report for the 2018 case process [Internet; cited 2020 April 23]. Available from: https://ast.dk/publikationer/arsopgorelse-2018.
  7. National Social Appeals Board (Ankestyrelsen): appeals board decisions on the services act in q2 to q4 2018, broken down by expanded case topic and expanded outcome [Internet; cited 2020 April 23]. Available from: https://ast.dk/filer/tal-og-undersogelser/statistikfiler/tabel-1ankestyrelses-afgorelser-om-serviceloven-i-2-til4-kvartal-2018-fordelt-pa-udvidet-sagsemne-ogudvidet-udfald-udvidet-ankestatistik.pdf.
  8. Sergot MJ, Sadri F, Kowalski RA, Kriwaczek F, Hammond P, Cory HT. The British nationality act as a logic program. Communications of the ACM. 1986;29(5):370–386.
  9. Jiang J, Aldewereld H, Dignum V, Wang S, Baida Z. Regulatory compliance of business processes [Internet; cited 2020 April 23]. Available from: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00146-014-0536-9.
  10. Li W. Language technologies for understanding law, politics, and public policy [dissertation]. Massachusetts: Massachusetts Institute of Technology; 2016. 209 p.
  11. Charrow RP, Charrow VR. Making legal language understandable: a psycholinguistic study of jury instructions. Columbia Law Review. 1979;79(7):1306–1374.
  12. Fahland D, Lübke D, Mendling J, Reijers H, Weber B, Weidlich M. Declarative versus imperative process modeling languages: the issue of understandability. In: Gulden J, Reinhartz-Berger I, Schmidt R, Guerreiro S, Guédria W, Bera P, editors. Enterprise, business-process and information systems modeling. Berlin: Springer; 2009. p. 353–366.
  13. Governatori G. Representing business contracts in ruleML. International Journal of Cooperative Information Systems.2005;14(2–3):181–216.
  14. López HA, Debois S, Slaats T, Hildebrandt TT. Business process compliance using reference models of law. In: Wehrheim H, Cabot J, editors. Fundamental approaches to software engineering. Berlin: Springer; 2020. p. 378–399.
  15. Hildebrandt T, Mukkamala RR. Declarative event-based workflow as distributed dynamic condition response graphs. Programming Language Approaches to Concurrency and Communication-cEntric Software. Electronic Proceedings in Theoretical Computer Science. 2010;69:59–73.
  16. López HA, Debois S, Hildebrandt TT, Marquard M. The process highlighter: from texts to declarative processes and back. In: Aalst van der WMP, Casati F, Conforti R, Leoni de M, Dumas M, Kuma A, ect., editors. Proceedings of the dissertation award, demonstration, and industrial track at BPM 2018 co-located with 16th International conference on business process management (BPM 2018) (9–14 September 2018; Sydney, Australia). Sydney; 2018. p. 66–70.
  17. Paivio A. Mental representations: a dual coding approach. New York: Oxford University Press;1990. 322 p.
  18. López HA, Marquard M, Muttenhaler L, Strømsted R. Assisted declarative process creation from natural language descriptions. In: Franke U, Kornyshova E, Lˆe LS, editors. Proceedings of the 23rd IEEE International enterprise distributed object computing (EDOC). Washington: IEEE Computer Society; 2019. p. 96–99.
  19. Mukkamala RR, Hildebrandt T, Slaats T. Towards trustworthy adaptive case management with dynamic condition response graphs. In: Proceedings of the 2013 17th IEEE International enterprise distributed object computing conference. Washington: IEEE Computer Society; 2013. p. 127–136.
  20. Debois S, Hildebrandt TT, Slaats T. Replication, refinement & reachability: complexity in dynamic condition-response graphs. Acta Informatica. 2018;55(6):489–520.
  21. Andaloussi AA, Buch-Lorentsen J, López HA, Slaats T, Weber B. Exploring the modeling of declarative processes using a hybrid approach. In: Laender AHF, Pernici B, Lim EP, Oliveira de JPM. 38th International conference on conceptual modeling, ER 2019 (4–7 November 2019; Salvador, Brasil). Berlin: Springer; 2019. p. 1–15.
  22. Taghiabadi ER, Fahland D, Dongen BF, Aalst WMP. Diagnostic information for compliance checking of temporal compliance requirements [Internet; cited…]. Available from: https://link.springer.com/chapter/ 10.1007/978-3-642-387098_20.
  23. Andaloussi AA, Burattin A, Slaats T, Petersen CA, Hildebrandt TT, Weber B. Exploring the understandability of a hybrid process design artifact based on DCR graphs. In: Reinhartz-Berger I, Zdravkovic J, Gulden J, Schmidt R, editors. Proceedings of the 20th International conference “Enterprise, business-process and information systems modeling” (3–4 June 2019; Rome, Italy). Berlin: Springer; 2019. p. 1–15.
  24. Leopold H, Mendling J, Polyvyanyy A. Supporting process model validation through natural language generation. IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering. 2014;40(8):818–840.
  25. Lindland O, Sindre G, Solvberg A. Understanding quality in conceptual modeling. IEEE Software. 1994;11(2):42–49.
Published
2020-10-29
Keywords: Rights-by-design, Digitalization of the Public Sector, Regulatory Compliance, compliant-by-design case work
Supporting Agencies This work has been financially supported by the Innovation Fund Denmark project Ecoknow.org (705000034A), and the European Union Marie Sklodowska-Curie grant agreement BehAPI No.778233.
How to Cite
López, H.-A. (2020). Digital experiences in creating digital services: case work for the rights of the child. Journal of the Belarusian State University. International Relations, 1, 77-87. Retrieved from https://journals.bsu.by/index.php/internationalRelations/article/view/3064